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Sunday, February 5, 2012

Diabetes – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment


Diabetes can strike anyone, anytime at any age. No one is secure from it and now days this disease is increasing among the people. Diabetes is like a slow poison, it destroys one’s body in a slow and steady manner. Mostly it affects the functioning of Heart and Kidneys.
In case of women, there is a type of diabetes that strikes the pregnant women in their pregnancy and it appears at the time of birth of their child but it becomes threatening for their future life as these women may become permanent patient of diabetes in later years.
Diabetes
Photo by : wikimedia
Here are some latest researches and information on Diabetes, which are really important for the Diabetic patients.
  • A research has found that Vitamin D can help in preventing the Diabetes in people, who are at high risk of developing this disease.
A research of Tufts Medical Center in Boston tells that there are many implications of Vitamin D because they are inexpensive.
In study of 2,000 people with the Prediabetes tell that if there is higher level of Vitamin D in Blood, the chances of development of Type 2 Diabetes lowers. A researcher Pittas presented these results in the annual meeting of American Diabetes Association.
It is found in another research in France that drinking about 4 or 8 Ounce glasses of Water a day can save you from development of High Blood Sugar, also known as Hyperglycemia.
In a survey of 3,615 men and women with the normal Blood Sugar Levels at the start of study, they reported they drank more than 34 Ounces of Water a day and as a result, they had 21% less chances of developing Hyperglycemia over the next 9 years.
The research took in to consideration, factors affecting risk of Blood Sugar including Sex, Age, Weight, consumption of Beer, Juices, Wine and other physical activities
According to CDC, about 79 Million Americans have Prediabetes, it is a condition in which Blood Sugar is higher than the normal level but that high to result in the diagnosis of Diabetes. It also increases the risk of developing Type 2, Diabetes, Heart Diseases and Stroke.
  • It was found that eating about 2 ounces of Nuts every day, replacing Carbohydrates is beneficial for the people with Type 2 Diabetes by decreasing the bed Cholesterol level and improving Blood Sugar Control.
A research of the University of Toronto shows that there are 2 important factors in caring for Diabetes
  • Blood Sugar
  • Heart Health
People who consume 2 Ounces of Nuts showed better results after 3 Months in Blood Sugar and LDL. Nuts consist of mixture of unsalted Almonds, Pistachios, Walnuts, Pecans, Hazelnuts, Cashews and Macadamias.
Nuts
Photo by : wikimedia
The important result, researchers wanted was a remarkable change in the Blood Sugar Control calledHbA1c.
The researchers found a significant reduction in HbA1c level with the help of treatment with the Nuts.
It was concluded with the research that mixed, unsalted, dry or roasted Nuts are good both for Blood Glucose Control and the Blood Lipids. These Nuts may also be used to increase the Vegetable Oil and Protein intake in the food habits of Type 2 Diabetic patients. It also helps to improve the Diabetes without gaining any weight.
  • A research shows that one in five women returns for the diabetes test within six months of her delivery. That’s the first checkup they are supposed to undergo to stay secure from diabetes. The American Diabetes Association recommends change in the process by which pregnant women are tested for diabetes.  This will identify the moderate cases of diabetes in pregnant women, most of which would just need better nutrition and exercise.
Women can have either insulin dependent or non insulin dependent diabetes during their pregnancy. These women should tightly control their diabetes to reduce the risks for themselves and their babies. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2 to 10 percent women develop diabetes for the first time during their pregnancy. It is known as gestational diabetes which, if not treated well, can lead to overgrown fetus, high chances of undergoing C section and pre-mature deliveries.  Due to such risks, medical groups are emphasizing on diabetes tests of pregnant women, but every third woman does not undergo that test. Usually, mother’s glucose level returns to normal few weeks after baby’s birth. Doctors suggest that patients need to be checked within six to 12 weeks for diabetes.

What is Diabetes?

Diabetes Mellitus is a set of diseases; in which body regulates the amount of Sugar in the Blood.
Glucose in the Blood gives energy to perform daily activities like walking, running for a bus, ride bike, take an aerobic exercise etc.
Glucose in the Blood is produced by the Liver, from the foods we eat.
In a healthy human being, the Blood Glucose is regulated by the Hormones known as Insulin. Insulin is produced by a Pancreas. The Pancreas secretes other enzymes too that help to digest the food.
Insulin allows Glucose to travel from Blood into the Liver, Muscle and other Fat Cells. This Insulin is used for Fuel.

Types of Diabetes

There are 2 types of Diabetes:
  1. Type 1 Diabetes
  2. Type 2 Diabetes
  3. Gestational Diabetes
In this disease, the Diabetes cannot move in to the cells, it stays in the Blood. It harms the cells and certain organs and tissues that are open to the High Glucose level.
    1. Type 1 Diabetes

      In this condition, the body does not produce Insulin or produces very less Insulin to regulate the Glucose level in Blood.
      Type 1 Diabetes comprises of about 10% of cases in the United States. It is mostly found in the childhood or in adults. It is also known as Insulin Dependent Mellitus. The patients of Type 1 Diabetes need daily Insulin to survive.
    2. Type 2 Diabetes

      In this condition, the body secretes Insulin but the body is unable to use the Insulin. It is also known as the Insulin Resistance. The body tries to cover the deficiency by secreting more and more Insulin.
      About 90% of patients in United States suffer from this disease. This type of Diabetes is usually found after the age of 45 years. It is also known as the Non- Insulin dependent Mellitus.
      This condition can be controlled with diet, weight loss, exercise and other Medications. Mostly people require Insulin to control the level of Blood Sugar.
    3. Gestational Diabetes

      It is a form of Diabetes that occurs during the 2nd half of Pregnancy. This condition of Diabetes finishes after the delivery of baby. Women with this condition have more chances of Type 2 Diabetes in life and mostly have large babies.
      Gestational Diabetes Kit
      Photo by : wikimedia

Pre-Diabetes

It is a common condition relating to Diabetes. A person with Pre-diabetes, blood Sugar level is higher than the normal people but not that high to be considered as Diabetes.
This condition increases the risk of developing of Type 2 Diabetes, Heart Diseases and Stroke.
Pre-Diabetes can be controlled without the use of Insulin, just by increasing the physical activity like weight loss etc.
About 20% people are believed to have this condition and develop Diabetes within 10 years, if they don’t maintain healthy weight.
About 17 Million are believed to have Diabetes in America.

Causes of Diabetes

Following are the causes of Diabetes

Causes of Type 1 Diabetes

It is considered as an autoimmune disease. The body’s Immune system attacks the Cells in Pancreas, this Pancreas produces Insulin.
Genetic causes are more common for Type 2 Diabetes. Environmental factors like Viral Infections may also contribute this type of Diabetes.
Type 1 Diabetes is common in Non-Hispanic, Northern European, African Americans and Hispanic Americans.
Type 1 Diabetes is more common in men than in women.

Causes of Type 2 Diabetes

A genetic cause is the main factor that influences Diabetes. Risk factors for development of Type 2 Diabetes include
  • High Blood Pressure
  • High Blood Fat level
  • High Fat Diet
  • High Alcohol Intake
  • Obesity
  • Being overweight
  • Age
  • Ethnicity
Causes of Type 2 Diabetes
Photo by : wikimedia
Native Americans, Hispanic Americans and Japanese Americans have more risk of developing Type 2 Diabetes.
Increasing age is an important risk for Type 2 Diabetes. Risk increases after the age of 45 years.

Symptoms of Diabetes

Following are the symptoms of Diabetes
  • It is usually recognize after Adolescence
  • Urinary Tract Infection
  • Stress
  • Nausea and Vomiting
  • Dehydration
  • Abnormal potassium flow in Blood
  • Fatigue
  • Weight Loss
  • Excessive thirst
  • Excessive Urination
  • Excessive eating
  • Bad wound handling
  • Infections
  • Changed mental status
  • Blurry vision

Diagnosis of Diabetes

If a patient suffers from the symptoms of Diabetes, they should immediately see a doctor
The symptoms of Diabetes show that the Blood Sugar is not controlled in the body.
Continuously High Blood Sugar is the root cause of complications of Diabetes.
If the patient’s Blood Sugar is low, it indicates that the management technique is too aggressive. It can also be a sign of stress or some infection including Kidney Failure, Liver Failure and Adrenal Gland Failure etc.
An injury to the foot or leg can be dangerous for the patients of Diabetes. Doctors suggest proper Diabetic Foot Care to the patients, who need to take care for their Feet.
The patient having low fever is also a sign of Infection. Symptoms like Difficult Urination, Redness of Skin, Abdominal pain, Chest Pain or cough may show a site where infection is located.
You should share all such information with the doctor, who knows well about the Diabetes and will adjust your medications.
Nausea and Vomiting is a sign of Diabetic Ketoacidosis, it is a serious condition.
Inform the doctor about your previous medications, Medical Problems, Allergy to Medicines etc.
The patients should be properly checked for the early signs of Diabetes.
Eye sight should be properly checked up because Diabetes mostly have bad side effects on Eye sight.
The patient’s Urine should be checked for the Protein level. Protein in the Urine is a sign of Diabetic Nephropathy that can cause Kidney failure.
Doctors should check the Feet and Legs for the cuts, blisters and Lesions etc.

Tests for Diabetes

Doctors use special tests in diagnosing Diabetes and monitoring Blood Sugar Level.
Following are the tests for Diabetes
  • Finger Stick Blood Glucose
  • Fasting Plasma Glucose
  • Oral Glucose Tolerance Test
  • Glycosylated Hemoglobin

Treatment of Diabetes

The treatment of Diabetes depends on an individual, depending on the type of Diabetes, age, health of a patient.
Health care provider set goals for changes in life style, Blood Sugar control and treatment.
The patient and the doctor both make a plan for the best possible treatment.

Type 1 Diabetes

Treatment of this type of Diabetes is composed of Injection of Insulin. It should be given as an Injection.

Type 2 Diabetes

Depending on an increase of Blood Sugar and Glycosylated Hemoglobin, they are provided a chance to lower the Blood Sugar level without medications.
The appropriate way to do this is to lose weight, if you are fat. The exercise plan should also be adopted for period of 3 to 6 Months then Blood Sugar should be rechecked.
It is important for the patients of Type 2 Diabetes to take oral medicines, Insulin injections to control Blood Sugar level.

Care at Home

Changes in diet, exercise and other lifestyle habits can minimize the complications of Diabetes.
  1. Diet

    A healthy life style is an important fact to control the Blood Sugar level. Go for a well balanced diet including Fibers, Low fats and less sweet.
  2. Exercise

    Regular exercise also helps to decrease the risk of Diabetes. Exercise can reduce the risk of developing Heart diseases, Stroke, Kidney failure, Blindness and Leg Ulcers. 20 Minutes walk, 3 times in a week is good for the better health.
  3. Use of Alcohol

    Try to reduce the consumption of Alcohol as it has bad effects on the patient of Diabetes.
    Alcohol consumption can cause low or high Blood Sugar levels.
  4. Smoking

    If the patients of Diabetes smoke, they raise the complications of their disease. It damages the Blood Vessels, Heart and Blood circulation in different parts of body.

Complications of Diabetes

Diabetes lead to the Hyperglycemia, it damages the Retina of an Eye, Kidneys and Nerves. It contributes to many serious medical problems.
Many infections are caused due to Diabetes. The infections are more dangerous for the people with Diabetes because their ability to fight with the infections is badly damaged.
At present time, Diabetes is the problem of every 3rd person. More and more are the sufferers of this disease. Lot of care is required for the patients of this disease. They should make some changes in their life style, which would reduce the complications of their disease and life ultimately.

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